JADM 350 DeVry Midterm Exam

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JADM 350 DeVry Midterm Exam

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JADM 350 DeVry Midterm Exam

JADM350

JADM 350 DeVry Midterm Exam

JADM 350 DeVry Midterm Exam

Question 1. Question : (TCO 1) A collection of social science methods applied systematically to generate knowledge about crime and justice phenomena is called ______________ .

  • scientific methodology
  • criminology
  • criminalistics
  • crime scene investigation
  • crime and justice research

Question 2. Question : (TCO 1) What is the primary source of information on criminal victimization in the United States?

  • The Federal Bureau of Investigation
  • The National Crime Victimization Survey
  • The American Victimization Association
  • The National Department of Victims of Crime
  • The Department of Victimization

 Question 3. Question : (TCO 1) Nonreactive research is _____________.

  • a method that involves the collection and reanalysis of existing quantitative data
  • a nonreactive method used to examine the content, or information and symbols, contained in written documents or other communication media
  • the unobtrusive collection of data that have usually been left behind by others
  • a method that uses a written questionnaire or formal interview to gather quantitative data on the backgrounds, behaviors, beliefs, or attitudes of a large number of people or agencies
  • a method in which the researcher engages the natural environment of their subjects and strives for an up close, personal, and highly detailed understanding of the research subject’s culture

Question 4. Question : (TCO 1) Ethnographic field research is ______________.

  • a method that involves the collection and reanalysis of existing quantitative data
  • a nonreactive method used to examine the content, or information and symbols, contained in written documents or other communication media
  • the unobtrusive collection of data that have usually been left behind by others
  • a method that uses a written questionnaire or formal interview to gather quantitative data on the backgrounds, behaviors, beliefs, or attitudes of a large number of people or agencies
  • a method in which the researcher engages the natural environment of their subjects and strives for an up close, personal, and highly detailed understanding of the research subject’s culture

Question 5. Question : (TCO 1) Personal experience knowledge is __________.

  • a basis of knowledge in which we rely on what someone in a position of authority says
  • a basis of knowledge in which we accept something as being true because of a long-running custom or belief
  • a basis of knowledge in which we rely on commonly accepted, ordinary reasoning
  • a basis of knowledge in which we rely on the media’s construction of the truth, which often relies on claims made by politicians and government officials
  • a basis of knowledge in which we rely on our own lived experiences

Question 6. Question : (TCO 1) Overgeneralization occurs when we have _______________.

  • statements that go far beyond what can be justified based on the data or empirical observations that one has
  • making observations in a way that simply reinforces preexisting thinking, rather than attempting to observe in a balanced and critical manner
  • making a judgment or reaching a decision and ending in an investigation, before one has the amount or depth of evidence required by scientific standards
  • allowing the prior reputation of persons, places, or things to color one’s evaluations, rather than attempting to evaluate in a neutral, equal manner

Question 7. Question : (TCO 1) Making a judgment or reaching a decision and ending in an investigation before one has the amount or depth of evidence required by scientific standards is called ________.

  • halo effect
  • premature closure
  • selective observation
  • overgeneralization

Question 8. Question : (TCO 1) The word data means ________________.

  • the empirical evidence or information that one gathers carefully according to rules or procedures.
  • a system of interconnected ideas that condenses and organizes knowledge for purposes of understanding and/or explanation
  • observations that people experience through the senses—touch, sight, hearing, smell, and taste
  • the scientific norm that says research should be judged only on the basis of scientific merit

Question 9. Question : (TCO 1) A cohort study…

  • examines the same people over time with check-up points
  • examines different people at multiple times
  • examines a group of people at once
  • examines a different group of people with similar characteristics over time
  • examines a group of people over time

Question 10. Question : (TCO 1) A philosophical concept that asks how we know what we say we know, and what constitutes legitimate knowledge is called _______________.

  • determinism
  • falsification doctrine
  • replication
  • essentialism
  • epistemology

Question 11. Question : (TCO 1) Interpretive social science (ISS) can be traced to German sociologist ______.

  • Auguste Comte
  • Sigmund Freud
  • Sir Karl Popper
  • Karl Marx
  • Max Weber

Question 12. Question : (TCO 1) The idea that two seemingly contradictory elements or processes actually interact in a mutually transformative manner, with each transforming one another, is called ________________.

  • praxis
  • reification
  • mutually transformative process
  • dialectic relationship
  • bounded autonomy

Question 13. Question : (TCO 1) When we take our human constructions for granted to the point that they become invisible, rendering an unquestionable level of control over us, it is called _______.

  • praxis
  • reification
  • mutually transformative process
  • dialectic relationship
  • bounded autonomy

Question 14. Question : (TCO 1) A theoretical statement that specifies the relationship between two or more concepts (variables) is called ___________.

  • an independent variable
  • a dependent variable
  • variable
  • a typology
  • a proposition

Question 15. Question : (TCO 1) The co-occurrence of two events, characteristics, or factors such that when one is present, the other one is likely to be present as well, is called ____________.

  • a concept
  • an independent variable
  • a dependent variable
  • an association
  • an experimental variable

Question 16. Question : (TCO 2) Fraud that occurs when a researcher steals the ideas or writings of another or uses them without citing the source is called ___________.

  • loss of objectivity
  • scientific irresponsibility
  • research fraud
  • scientific misconduct
  • plagiarism

Question 17. Question : (TCO 2) A famous research study in which the researcher observed men engaging in sexual acts in a public bathroom, and then tracked them down a year later to conduct covert interviews, is called _______________.

  • Zimbardo Prison Experiment
  • The Attica Study
  • Humphrey’s “tearoom trade”
  • Stanley Milgram’s Experiment
  • Van Maanen Study

Question 18. Question : (TCO 2) ____________ is an ethical principle that people should never participate in research unless they explicitly and freely agree to participate.

  • Freedom of choice
  • Free will
  • Determinism
  • Voluntary consent
  • Informed consent

Question 19. Question : (TCO 2) The role that a field researcher adopts where he or she reveals that research is being conducted, but is vague about its details, is called __________.

  • shallow cover
  • sting operation
  • undercover operation
  • deep cover
  • secret research

Question 20. Question : (TCO 2) The ethical protection that participants remain nameless, their identity protected from disclosure and remains unknown, is called _________.

  • anonymity
  • secretiveness
  • protection
  • confidential
  • obscurity

Question 21. Question : (TCO 2) Academic periodicals that publish peer-reviewed research and essays usually found in college and university libraries are called ________.

  • magazines
  • Newsweek and Time
  • research books
  • scholarly journals
  • all of the above

Question 22. Question : (TCO 2) One of the following is not one of the four types of triangulation.

  • triangulation of method
  • triangulation of measures
  • triangulation of observers
  • triangulation of theory
  • triangulation of technique

Question 23. Question : (TCO 2) Triangulation of measures is _________________.

  • getting different measures for the same experiment
  • taking multiple measures of a phenomenon
  • multiple observers of a phenomenon
  • viewing phenomenon from multiple theoretical lenses

Question 24. Question : (TCO 2) Quality research topics come to the researcher through _____________.

  • reading the literature
  • developing out theoretical filters
  • paying attention to current events
  • taking notice of problems that need to be solved
  • all of the above

Question 25. Question : (TCO 2) An intervening variable is ___________________.

  • a concept that varies, or an empirical measure that can take on multiple values.
  • the categories or levels of a variable
  • a cause variable that produces an effect of results on a dependent variable in a causal hypothesis
  • the effect or result variable that is caused by an independent variable in a causal hypothesis
  • a variable that comes between the independent and dependent variables and shows the link or causal mechanism between them

Question 26. Question : (TCO 2) An attribute is ____________________.

  • a concept that varies, or an empirical measure that can take on multiple values.
  • the categories or levels of a variable
  • a cause variable that produces an effect of results on a dependent variable in a causal hypothesis
  • the effect or result variable that is caused by an independent variable in a causal hypothesis
  • a variable that comes between the independent and dependent variables and shows the link or causal mechanism between them

Question 27. Question : (TCO 2) If the research’s hypothesis is “poverty affects the crime rate of a city,” poverty is _________________.

  • a concept that does not vary the categories or levels of a variable
  • a cause variable that produces an effect of results on a dependent variable in a causal hypothesis
  • the effect or result variable that is caused by an independent variable in a causal hypothesis
  • a variable that comes between the independent and dependent variables and shows the link or causal mechanism between them

Question 28. Question : (TCO 2) A causal hypothesis is __________________.

  • a statement of a causal explanation or proposition that has at least one independent and one dependent variable, and has yet to be empirically tested
  • a hypothesis that states there is no significant effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable
  • a hypothesis paired with the null hypothesis with two independent variables in which it is unclear whether one or the other variable, or both in combination, produce an effect
  • a confusing and poorly designed hypothesis with two independent variables making it unclear whether one or the other variable, or both in combination, produce an effect

Question 1. Question : (TCO 4) The process of developing clear, rigorous, systematic conceptual definitions for abstract ideas/concepts is called _____________.

  • organization
  • logic
  • clarification
  • conceptualization
  • defining your terms

Question 2. Question : (TCO 4) The definition of a variable in terms of the specific actions to measure or indicate it in the empirical world is called _____________.

  • operational definition
  • operationalization
  • clarification
  • clear conceptualization
  • organization

Question 3. Question : (TCO 4) Equivalence reliability is ________________.

  • measurement reliability across time; a measure that yields consistent results at different time points, assuming that what is being measured does not change itself
  • measurement reliability across groups; a measure that yields consistent results for various social groups
  • measurement reliability across indicators; a measure that yields consistent results using different specific indicators, assuming that all measure the same construct
  • how well an empirical indicator and the conceptual definition of the construct that the indicator is suppose to measure fit together

Question 4. Question : (TCO 4) Face validity is ______________.

  • a type of measurement validity in which an indicator makes sense as a measure of a construct in the judgment of others, especially in the scientific community
  • measurement validity that requires that a measure represents all of the aspects of the conceptual definition of a construct
  • measurement validity that relies on some independent outside verification
  • a type of measurement validity that uses multiple indicators and has two indicators and two subtypes: how well indicators of one construct converge and how well indicators of different constructs diverge

Question 5. Question : (TCO 4) Criterion validity is ______________.

  • a type of measurement validity in which an indicator makes sense as a measure of a construct in the judgment of others, especially in the scientific community
  • measurement validity that requires that a measure represents all of the aspects of the conceptual definition of a construct
  • measurement validity that relies on some independent outside verification
  • a type of measurement validity that uses multiple indicators and has two indicators and two subtypes: how well indicators of one construct converge and how well indicators of different constructs diverge
  • a measure of validity that relies on a preexisting and already accepted measure to verify the indicator of a construct

Question 6. Question : (TCO 4) Convergent validity is _________________.

  • a type of measurement validity in which an indicator makes sense as a measure of a construct in the judgment of others, especially in the scientific community
  • a measurement validity that relies on the occurrence of a future event or behavior that is logically consistent to verify the indicator of a construct
  • measurement of validity that relies on some independent outside verification
  • a type of measurement validity for multiple indicators based on the idea that indicators of one construct will act alike or converge
  • a measurement validity for multiple indicators based on the idea that indicators of different constructs diverge

Question 7. Question : (TCO 4) An ordinal-level of measurement is __________________.

  • the lowest, least-precise level of measurements for which there is a difference in type only among the categories of variable
  • a level of measurement that identifies a difference among categories of a variable and allows the categories to be rank ordered as well
  • a level of measurement that identifies differences among variable attributes, rank categories, and measures distance between categories, but there is no true zero
  • the highest, most-precise level of measurement; variable attributes can be rank ordered, the distance between them precisely measured, and there is an absolute zero

Question 8. Question : (TCO 4) Variables measured on a continuum, in which an infinite number of finer gradations between variable attributes are possible, are called _____________.

  • independent variables
  • discrete variables
  • continuous variables
  • dependent variables
  • spurious variables

Question 9. Question : (TCO 4) Variables in which the attributes can be measured with only a limited number of distinct, separate categories are called ________________.

  • independent variables
  • discrete variables
  • continuous variables
  • dependent variables
  • spurious variables

Question 10. Question : (TCO 4) This is a scale often used in survey research in which people express attitudes or other responses in terms of ordinal-level categories that are ranked along a continuum.

  • Rates
  • Likert Scale
  • The Truth Scale
  • None of the above

Question 11. Question : (TCO 4) The abstract idea of a large group of many cases from which a researcher draws a sample and to which results from a sample are generalized is called a ________.

  • group
  • small group
  • sample
  • population
  • sampling case

Question 12. Question : (TCO 4) The concretely specified large group of many cases from which a researcher draws a sample and to which results from a sample are generalized is called __________.

  • sampling frame
  • target population
  • sample population
  • sampling case

Question 13. Question : (TCO 4) How much a sample deviates from being representative of the population is called __________.

  • a sampling probability
  • a sampling error
  • a random sample
  • a population selection
  • random chance

Question 14. Question : (TCO 6) ________________ is a type of random sample that uses multiple stages and is often used to cover wide geographic areas in which aggregated units are randomly selected and then samples are drawn from the sampled aggregated units, or clusters.

  • Cluster sampling
  • Systematic sampling
  • Confidence intervals
  • Sampling interval
  • Stratified sampling

Question 15. Question : (TCO 6) Cluster sampling is __________________________.

  • a random sample in which the researcher first identifies a set of mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories, divides the sampling frame by the categories, and then uses random selection to select cases from each category
  • a range of values, usually a little higher or lower than a specific value found in a sample, within which a researcher has a specified and high degree of confidence that the population’s parameters lie
  • the inverse of the sampling ration that is used when selecting cases in systematic sampling.
  • a random sample in which a researcher selects everykth (e. g., 12th) case in the sample frame using a sampling interval
  • a type of random sample that uses multiple stages and is often used to cover wide geographic areas in which aggregated units are randomly selected and then samples are drawn from the sampled aggregated units, or clusters

Question 16. Question : (TCO 6) Sequential sampling is ________________.

  • a nonrandom sample in which the researcher first identifies general categories into which cases or people will be selected, and then he or she selects cases to reach a predetermined number of cases in each category.
  • a nonrandom sample in which the researcher uses a wide range of methods to locate all possible cases of a highly specific and difficult-to-reach population
  • a nonrandom sample in which the researcher selects specific times, locations, or events to observe in order to develop a social theory or evaluate theoretical ideas
  • a nonrandom sample, especially used by qualitative researchers, in which a researcher selects unusual or nonconforming cases purposely as a way to provide greater insight into social processes or a setting
  • a nonrandom sample in which a researcher tries to find as many relevant cases as possible, until time, financial resources, or his or her energy is exhausted, or until there is no new information or diversity from the cases

Question 17. Question : (TCO 6) The group that does not get the treatment in experimental research is called the ______.

  • testable group
  • experimental group
  • research group
  • non-treatment group
  • control group

Question 18. Question : (TCO 6) Interrupted time-series design is/are _________________.

  • an effect of two independent variables operating simultaneously and in combination on a dependent variable. It is a larger effect than occurs from the sum of each independent variable working separately
  • experimental designs that lack random assignment or use shortcuts and are much weaker than the classical experimental design. They can be substituted in situations in which an experimenter cannot use
  • all of the features of a classical experimental design, but have weaker internal validity an experimental design with only an experimental group and a posttest, no pretest.
  • pre-experimental design that has one group, a pretest, treatment, and a posttest.
  • It lacks a control group and random assignment an experimental design in which the dependent variable is measured periodically across many time points, and the treatment occurs in the midst of such measures, often only once

Question 19. Question : (TCO 6) Pre-experimental designs is/are ___________________.

  • an effect of two independent variables operating simultaneously and in combination on a dependent variable. It is a larger effect than occurs from the sum of each independent variable working separately
  • experimental designs that lack random assignment or use shortcuts and are much weaker than the classical experimental design. They can be substituted in situations in which an experimenter cannot use
  • all of the features of a classical experimental design, but have weaker internal validity an experimental design with only an experimental group and a posttest, no pretest.
  • pre-experimental design that has one group, a pretest, treatment, and a posttest.
  • It lacks a control group and random assignment an experimental design in which the dependent variable is measured periodically across many time points, and the treatment occurs in the midst of such measures, often only once

Question 20. Question : (TCO 6) A threat to internal validity due to something that occurs and affects the dependent variable during an experiment, but that is unplanned and outside the control of the experimenter, is called ________________ .

  • internal validity error
  • historical error
  • history effects
  • random error
  • spontaneous error

Question 21. Question : (TCO 6) A threat to internal validity that occurs when the very process of measuring in the pretest can have an impact on the dependent variable.

  • history effects
  • testing effects
  • time series effects
  • experimental effects
  • maturation effect

Question 22. Question : (TCO 6) The most widely use research technique in the social sciences is _________.

  • experiments
  • observational studies
  • record studies
  • participant observation
  • surveys

Question 23. Question : (TCO 6) When survey research respondents compress time when answering about past events, it is called ______________.

  • false memory
  • time questioning
  • memory failure
  • telescoping
  • time compression

Question 24. Question : (TCO 6) A type of survey research question in which respondents are free to offer any answer that they wish to the questions is called _______________.

a short answer

social desirability question

a close-ended question

a preliminary question

an open-ended question

Question 25. Question : (TCO 6) A quasi-filter question is _________________.

  • a survey research question in which respondents are first asked whether they have an opinion or know about a topic; then only those with an opinion or knowledge are asked
  • a specific question about the topic
  • a survey research question that includes the answer choice “No Opinion,” “Unsure,” or “Don’t Know”
  • a type of survey research question in which the answer categories do not include a “No Opinion” or “Don’t Know” option
  • all of the above

Question 26. Question : (TCO 6) A classical experimental design is _______________.

  • a type of experimental design that considers the impact of several independent variables simultaneously
  • an experimental design that has random assignment, a control group, and a pretest and posttest for each group
  • an experimental design used to examine whether the order of sequence in which subjects receive multiple versions of the treatment has an effect
  • an experimental design in which subjects are randomly assigned to two control groups and two experimental groups
  • an experimental design that has all of the parts of the classical design except a pretest

Question 27. Question : (TCO 6) A factorial design is ____________________.

  • an experimental design that has all the parts of the classical design except a pretest
  • an experimental design that has random assignment, a control group, and a pretest and posttest for each group
  • an experimental design used to examine whether the order of sequence in which subjects receive multiple versions of the treatment has an effect
  • an experimental design in which subjects are randomly assigned to two control groups and two experimental groups
  • a type of experimental design that considers the impact of several independent variables simultaneously