CRMJ 400 DeVry Midterm Exam Latest

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CRMJ 400 DeVry Midterm Exam Latest

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CRMJ 400 DeVry Midterm Exam Latest

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CRMJ 400 DeVry Midterm Exam Latest

TCO#2: A research approach that asks participants to describe their recent and lifetime criminal activity is called _____. :

  • field observation
  • cross-sectional research
  • meta-analysis
  • self-reported study (page 34)

Question 2. Question : TCO#2: If criminologists want to see the direct effect of one factor or variable on another factor or variable, they conduct _____. :

  • experimental research (see page 37)
  • aggregate data research
  • cohort research
  • survey research

Question 3. Question : TCO#2: What is known about the trend in property crime rates? :

  • Like the violent crime rate, the property crime rate has increased slightly.
  • Unlike the violent crime rate, the property crime rate has continued to fall. (page 43)
  • The violent crime rate and property crime rate have remained equally stable.
  • The violent crime rate has decreased, while the property crime rate has increased.

Question 4. Question : TCO#2: According to Wolfgang, Figlio, and Sellin’s cohort study, what percentage of chronic offenders was responsible for a significant proportion of all serious crime? :

  • 12 percent
  • 15 percent
  • 6 percent (page 56)
  • 25 percent

Question 5. Question : TCO#2: The relationship between class and crime is an important one for criminological theory. The weight of recent evidence seems to suggest that serious official crime is more prevalent _____. :

  • across both the middle and lower class
  • among the middle class
  • among the upper class
  • among the lower class (page 51)

Question 6. Question : TCO#1: ____________ is an academic discipline that makes use of the scientific methods to study the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior. :

  • Sociology
  • Criminal Justice
  • Criminology (page 4)
  • Psychology

Question 7. Question : TCO#1: The theory that suggests people have free will to choose a criminal career or unlawful solutions to meet their needs or settle their problems is _____. :

  • classical theory (page 6)
  • conflict theory
  • biosocial theory
  • Marxist theory

Question 8. Question : TCO#1: The Chicago School was developed by a group of sociologists at _____. :

  • the Chicago Institute of Criminology
  • the University of Illinois
  • Illinois State University
  • the University of Chicago (pages 8-9)

Question 9. Question : TCO#: 1 Common law was developed after the Norman Conquest of England in 1066 through the verdicts of ________ who used local customs and rules of conduct as guides for decision-making. :

  • juries
  • popes
  • kings
  • royal judges (page 19)

Question 10. Question : TCO#1: The intent to commit the criminal act is known as _____. :

  • mens rea (page 21)
  • actus reus
  • mala in se
  • mala prohibitum

Question 11. Question : TCO#3: Referring to the relationship between marital status and vicimization, who is least likely to become a crime victim? :

  • Someone who is married
  • Someone who has never married
  • Someone who is divorced
  • Someone who is a widow or widower (page 70)

Question 12. Question : TCO#3: One’s chances of victimization are reduced by _____. :

  • staying single
  • staying out of public places
  • moving to the city
  • being out and about after 10 p.m. (page 73)

Question 13. Question : TCO#3: When victims act provocatively, use threats or fighting words, or even attack first, this is known as _____. :

  • passive precipitation
  • active precipitation (page 73)
  • aggressive precipitation
  • reactive precipitation

Question 14. Question : TCO#3: In routine activities theory, a large number of unemployed teenagers would be an example of _____. :

  • suitable targets
  • capable guardians
  • protective sentinels
  • motivated offenders (page 74)

Question 15. Question : TCO#3: According to routine activities theory, homes that contained easily salable objects such as laptop computers, stereos, and television sets would be classified as _____. :

  • hot targets
  • hot spots
  • suitable targets (page 74)
  • chronic spots

Question 16. Question : TCO#4: Beccaria believed that criminals choose to commit crime and that their choices could be controlled by _____. :

  • fear of punishment (page 92)
  • improving economic conditions
  • selective incapacitation
  • situational crime prevention

Question 17. Question : TCO#4: While outwardly considered the most irrational of offenders, serial murders are considered rational because: :

  • they tend to have high IQs.
  • they pick their targets with care. (page 99)
  • they elude arrest for months, and sometimes for years.
  • they are rarely, in actuality, psychologically disturbed.

Question 18. Question : TCO#4: According to _____________, crime rates are influenced and controlled by the threat of punishment. :

  • general deterrence (page 104)
  • specific deterrence
  • diffusion of benefits
  • crime displacement

Question 19. Question : TCO#4: The Kansas City, Missouri police department’s study of patrol effectiveness, convinced criminologists that: :

  • the mere presence of patrol officers on the street did not have a deterrent effect. (page 105)
  • doubling the amount of patrol officers on the street had a deterrent effect.
  • The mere presence of patrol officers on the street had a deterrent effect, but only in high crime areas.
  • decreasing the amount of patrol officers on the street increased crime.

Question 20. Question : TCO#4: The philosophy of justice that asserts that those who violate the rights of others deserve to be punished is known as _____. :

  • specific deterrence
  • just desert (page 112)
  • revenge
  • retribution

Question 21. Question : TCO#4: The belief that no serious consideration should be given to biological factors when attempting to understand human nature is known as _____. :

  • choice theory
  • biophobia (page 123)
  • nature theory
  • nurture theory

Question 22. Question : TCO#4: A disorder in which a child shows a developmentally inappropriate lack of attention and an excess of impulsivity is known as _____. :

  • attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (page 130)
  • oppositional defiance disorder
  • impulse dysfunctional disorder
  • conduct disorder

Question 23. Question : TCO#4: A mental state, labeled ________________ is found in youngsters whose personalities require them to seek immediate gratification, to consider their own needs more important than others, and to satisfy instinctive urges without considering right and wrong. :

  • deferred delinquency
  • emergent delinquency
  • latent delinquency (page 138)
  • delayed delinquency

Question 24. Question : TCO#4: Social learning theory holds that people learn to be aggressive through their life experiences. Which of these is not a source of this behavior modeling process? :

  • Environmental experiences
  • Family interaction
  • Mass media
  • Religious affiliation (page 141)

Question 25. Question : TCO#4: According to recent media research by Bushman and Anderson violent media has __________ impact on people with preexisting tendency toward crime and violence. :

  • no
  • short-term
  • an immediate (page 144)
  • a time-delayed

Question 26. Question : TCO#4: A socially disorganized area is one in which the ______________ have broken down and can no long carry out their expected or stated functions. :

  • institutions of social control (page 166)
  • institutions of social service
  • institutions of federal government
  • global institutions

Question 27. Question : TCO#4: Social disorganization theory was developed by the work of two Chicago sociologists _____. :

  • Martin and Gordon
  • Winfree and Mays
  • Sutherland and Durkheim
  • McKay and Shaw (page 168)

Question 28. Question : TCO#4: A renewal stage in which obsolete housing is replaced and upgraded is known as _____. :

  • gentrification (page 172)
  • turnover
  • transition
  • revitalization

Question 29. Question : TCO#4: When individuals embrace conventional social goals and have the means at their disposal to attain them, this is known as _____. :

  • rebellion
  • ritualism
  • innovation
  • conformity (page 176)

Question 30. Question : TCO#4: According to Miller’s focal concern theory, which of the following is not identified as a lower class focal concern? :

  • Excitement
  • Trouble
  • Achievement (page 182)
  • Smartness

Question 31. Question : TCO#4: Social learning theory suggests that crime is a/an ________ behavior. :

  • chronic
  • learned (page 203)
  • innate
  • isolated

Question 32. Question : TCO#4: The principle that criminal techniques are learned is part of _____. :

  • differential association theory (pages 205-206)
  • labeling theory
  • social reaction theory
  • differential reinforcement theory

Question 33. Question : TCO#4: The view that becoming a criminal is a learning process in which potential delinquents master skills that enable them to counterbalance conventional values and drift back and forth between illegitimate and conventional behavior is known as _____. :

  • social reaction theory
  • differential association theory
  • differential reinforcement theory
  • neutralization theory (see page 207)

Question 34. Question : TCO#4: Which one is not an element of the social bond? :

  • Attachment
  • Commitment
  • Involvement
  • Achievement (page 211)

Question 35. Question : TCO#4: This occurs when norm violations or crimes have very little influence on the actor and can be quickly forgotten. :

  • Stigma
  • Anomie
  • Primary deviance (page 217)
  • Secondary deviance

Question 36. Question : TCO#4: According to the instrumental theorists, unmasking the true purpose of law and justice is termed to _____. :

  • destigmatize
  • demystify (page 237)
  • discredit
  • dishonor

Question 37. Question : TCO#4: The branch of conflict theory that focuses upon the emergence of a strict “law and order” philosophy and that believes street criminals prey on the poor and disenfranchised, thus making the poor doubly abused, first by the capitalist system and then by members of their own class is known as _____. :

  • power-control theory
  • left realism (page 239-240)
  • critical realism
  • peacemaking theory

Question 38. Question : TCO#4: According to the instrumental view of critical criminology, the poor may or may not commit more crimes than the rich, but _____. :

  • their crime are less visible
  • they are arrested and punished less often
  • their crimes are more serious in nature
  • they are arrested and punished more often (page 237)

Question 39. Question : TCO#4: Most balanced and restorative justice programs are located within _____. :

  • the locality’s probation system
  • the locality’s juvenile justice system (page 246)
  • the locality’s adult criminal justice system
  • the locality’s social work system

Question 40. Question : TCO#4: From a Marxist perspective, the people who perform the actual work are called _____. :

  • the underclass
  • the chattering class
  • the bourgeoisie
  • the proletariat (page 230)